Todo lo que debes saber sobre el pie plano

El pie plano es un problema bastante común, y es normal en bebés y niños pequeños. 

Se considera que se tienen pies planos cuando e los tejidos que sostienen las articulaciones en el pie (llamadas tendones) están flojos, y significa un cambio en la forma del pie en el cual éste no tiene un arco normal al estar parado. 

Cuando son pequeños, los niños no tienen arco, pero a medida que crecen, los tejidos se tensan y lo forman; eso sucede a los 2 o 3 años de edad. La mayoría de las personas tiene arcos normales cuando son adultas, aunque es posible que en algunas personas nunca se forme, y tengan pie plano para siempre.

Algunas afecciones hereditarias que pueden causar tendones flojos son el síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos y el síndrome de Marfan. Las personas que nacen con estas enfermedades pueden tener el pie plano. 

El envejecimiento, las lesiones o una enfermedad pueden causar daño a los tendones y provocar que se desarrolle pie plano en una persona a quien ya se le han formado los arcos. Se puede tener en un sólo pie plano y el otro normal. 

En pocas ocasiones, los pies planos dolorosos en los niños pueden ser causados por una afección en la cual dos o más de los huesos en el pie crecen unidos o se fusionan: esto se denomina coalición tarsiana.

Síntomas del pie plano

La mayoría de los pies planos no causa dolor ni otros problemas, explica la Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina de EE.UU. Los niños pueden tener dolor en el pie, el tobillo o la parte inferior de la pierna y deben ser evaluados por un proveedor de atención médica si esto ocurre. 

Los síntomas en los adultos pueden abarcar pies arqueados o cansados después de períodos prolongados de estar de pie o practicar deportes.

¿Necesitan tratamiento?

En personas con pies planos, el empeine del pie hace contacto con el suelo al pararse. Para diagnosticar el problema, el proveedor te pedirá que te pares en los dedos de los pies. Si se forma un arco, el pie plano se llama flexible. No se necesitan más exámenes ni tratamiento.

Si no se forma el arco mientras estás parado en los dedos del pie (llamado pie plano rígido) o si hay dolor, se pueden necesitar otros exámenes.

Los pies planos no necesitan tratamiento si no están causando dolor o problemas para caminar.

Algunos datos sobre el pie plano

  • Los pies del niño crecerán y se desarrollarán normalmente, ya sea que se usen zapatos especiales, plantillas para zapato, taloneras ortopédicas o cuñas.
  • El niño puede caminar descalzo, correr o saltar o hacer alguna otra actividad sin empeorar los pies planos.

Si los pies planos causan dolor, esto puede ayudar:

  • Un soporte de arco (dispositivo ortopédico) que se pone en el zapato. Esto se compra en una tienda o se manda a hacer a medida.
  • Usar zapatos especiales
  • Estirar las pantorrillas 

Los pies planos rígidos o dolorosos requieren de la evaluación por parte de un médico. El tratamiento depende de la causa del pie plano. En caso de coalición tarsiana, el tratamiento comienza con reposo y posiblemente una férula de yeso. Si el dolor no mejora, puede ser necesaria la cirugía.

Consulta con tu proveedor si experimentas dolor persistente en los pies o si tu hijo se queja de dolor de pie o dolor en la parte baja de la pierna.

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